Friends of the Hunley is
happy to announce that tours of the Hunley are now available every
Saturday from 10 - 5 and Sunday 12 - 5.
Tours will not be available
on weekdays so that the archaeologists can continue their work preserving the
Hunley for future generations.
special welcome to
all the new subscribers. This newsletter IS published
issues are dedicated not only to the brave
honorable Men of the Hunley,
have proved especially complicated. For instance, one
Several of the artifacts already conserved have yielded clues to the
sailors' identities and lives. Mardikian said some of the more
interesting data is in the remains of the Hunley sailors' shoes.
Although most of the shoes had disintegrated, scientists have
cleaned and preserved some to the point that they have the
fossilized imprint of the skin of one crewman in a shoe.
In one shoe, the footprint of sub commander George Dixon is fresh.
Scientists say the imprint is surprisingly narrow for an adult man
who was at least 5 feet, 9 inches tall
There has been much discussion about the forward hatch, its design and functionality as well as the effects it had on the sinking of The Hunley.
We know from research that the hatches are oval shaped, i.e. they are longer than wide and that the forward and aft hatches face opposite each other. The forward hatch opens toward the bow, whereas the rear hatch opens toward the stern. Both hatches wave cut-waters, triangular pieces mounted in front of them to reduce their resistance to forward underwater motion. Both hatch towers have portholes with views to the port and starboard sides. The portholes in the forward hatch tower are lower than those in the rear, allowing Captain Dixon to view and navigate while sitting in his command position.
The forward tower also has square shaped portholes that face forward and located on each side of the cutwaters.
At one time it was suspected
that a shot from the
Housatonic blew out the glass in the
Because of the oval shape of
the port holes the crewmen would have to stand sideways in order
Some of the best
illustrations of this can be seen at
reconstruction web site.
Because of the still remaining crustaceans on the hatch and latching mechanism we still do not have a clear and concise picture.
This picture shows design interpretations of the hatch -Used in the filming of the Hunley Movie
It is my impression that the towers are bolted down and are not raised in exactly the same way the hull bolts are treated.
It should also be noted that there is a corresponding “lip” around the top or the hatch tower that matches with the hatch cover and is sealed with a rubber gasket.
Even though the hull has been painted an almost blue black you will notice that the interior of the hatch cover is painted white to help reflect the limited light available inside. The glasses are all very small and scale out to be about 3” in diameter.
There is evidence that there are linkages (metal rods) that attach to the hatch locking device and that when the hatch is unlatched the linkage swings down into the cabin to allow room to get a head into the hatch tower. Evidence has shown that when the hatches are fully dogged down the linkages or handles block the way of anyone attempting to raise their heads into the tower to see. This is only cumbersome while surfaced with the hatches locked down. The water in Charleston Harbor is silt ridden and murky such that you can only see a short distance while underwater.
HUNLEY SINKING THEORY INVOLVING THE FORWARD HATCH
Paul Mardikian had
stated there was air in the boat for some time. If silt were entering the boat,
then water had entered the boat at the same time. Remember, the boat was lying
at 45 degrees, placing the companionways at an angle. There would be a strip of
hull, separated by stiffeners that on the inside, that would actually be higher
than the hatch openings. I'm sure this will turn out to be the area where Paul
discovered the stalactites. For all intents and purposes, the boat would have
completely filled with water except for this narrow strip of air, probably no
more than 3 inches thick, or the thickness of the frames, at the top of the hull
which would also trap air pockets between them. It would be impossible for the
boat to have any more than a small amount of air trapped in her.
is an excerpt from the transcript where Alan Alda is discussing the forward
The Uncivilized Engine of
War Scientific American Frontiers - Mysteries of the Deep Segment 1
PAUL MARDIKIAN This is
the cover of the forward hatch here, okay? And this is the hatch itself. Now,
ALAN ALDA (NARRATOR) If
the crew really did signal their success on the surface after the attack -
5) ''THE ROMANCE OF THE SUBMARINE'' by G.Gibbard Jackson
article was sent in by
with these comments… “have
found an old book, that
THE FOLLOWING EXCERPT IS
INTERESTING AS TO WHAT WAS PUBLISHED IN 1930, COMPARED
''THE ROMANCE OF THE SUBMARINE'' by G.Gibbard Jackson
THE SUBMARINE IN ACTION
(MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY) Chapter VIII page 91 - 101
The opening of the’ sixties of the nineteenth century showed a war cloud on the horizon; the bitter struggle
between the North and South States of North America was almost at the point of breaking out, and although
the greater part of the fighting which eventuated was accomplished on land, the Naval battles such as they
were of greater portent for future warfare. It was just at this period that France and England had at last
decided that an armored warship was a practical necessity; we still had tall wooden ships reminiscent of
Nelson’s days, which offered a magnificent target for the guns of an enemy.
Steam had been introduced
when the Civil War began in America.
Although the submarine, as we know it, was certainly not employed in this historic war, mines and torpedoes
were used extensively, and with varying success. Not quite twenty warships were destroyed through the use
of these aids to naval warfare. We mentioned that the submarine as we know it had no part in this struggle
on the other hand, it is recorded that the Federal corvette Housatonic was sent to the bottom by a type of
vessel which can be best classed as a submarine. This pioneer undersea boat shared the fate of the warship
which she sank, but the details available are very meager. There are, however, frequent references in the
histories of the American Civil War, especially those written by the Confederates, of submarine torpedo boats
attacking the enemy.
Although the Confederate writers describe their vessels as submarine torpedo boats, it would be more
accurate to call them gunboats. True, very little of them was seen above the surface, but they certainly
did not entirely submerge. One of these vessels, which though not a submarine, was decidedly a step
on the way to one, was known as the David; This curious vessel boldly attacked the ironclad New Ironsides.
Her hull was shaped very much like that of a modern submarine of the smaller class, and it exceeded 50 feet
in length, whilst it had a diameter of approximately 9 feet amidships. When steaming in the ordinary way,
a fairly tall funnel was used, but it was made on a telescopic principle, so that it could be lowered within a
few feet of the surface of the sea. These submersible gunboats were not intended to take the open sea, at
least, not for any length of time, but they were very effective in patrolling rivers and harbours, and occasionally
they made short trips along the coast when endeavoring to sink an enemy. The New Ironsides was one of the
wonder craft of the Federal navy, and so greatly was she appreciated that
whether she went to sea, or
The David was manned entirely by volunteers, and was placed under the command of a Lieutenant Glassell.
In the darkness the tiny gunboat got under way, and with only the smallest portion of her hull showing above
the water, she steered to attack any Federal ship that lay in her path, but particularly was it hoped that the
New Ironsides might receive the spar torpedo which was fitted to the bows of the David. It is not clear
whether this small vessel had more than one torpedo aboard, but even is she had, it is difficult to see how
it could have been fitted without her coming back to her base. One account says that, despite the noise of
her engines and the sparks from her funnels, she managed to come almost alongside the enemy ship
before the lookouts on board the New Ironsides spotted her; even when they did, they could only conjecture,
in the darkness that she was a baulk of timber floating towards them. One of the lieutenants aboard the big
warship appears to have guessed immediately what she was, and what her errand was. To make quite sure
he hailed her, and got for an answer a discharge of musketry. A bullet found its mark in the lieutenant, and
he was mortally wounded. Hardly had this happened before the torpedo was launched, and with a terrible
crash it hit the hull of the ironclad. The vessel was seen to tremble as if struck by an enormous weight; in
addition, a column of water many feet high was sent aloft by the impact of the torpedo, and it fell with a
tremendous crash on the decks of the battleship. The men aboard the New Ironsides were terribly scared,
largely because it was such an unprecedented occurrence. But they quickly recovered their nerve on finding
that the torpedo, though making a tremendous amount of noise, and displacing a considerable amount of
water, had left the ironclad uninjured. It was a strange turn in the wheel of fate which left the attacked
uninjured, and set the crew of the David into the water. The discharge of the torpedo had caused such a
commotion aboard the smaller craft, that it appeared she must sink and the crew were so certain of this
that they simply dived into the sea and swam away for dear life.. Whilst some of the David’s men were
picked up by Federal craft, other, finding she was still afloat, swam back, and
actually were able to return
Although he Confederates felt that their attack on the New Ironsides had definitely failed, they were quick to
appreciate the fact that a vessel which could approach a fleet more circumspectly than the partially
submerged boats of the David type, would have a much greater chance of success. Their experts then set
to work on plans for a real submarine’ it was actually built at New Orleans, but before it could be put in
service, or indeed, before it could have its trials, the city succumbed to the Federals. When it was seen
that the capture of New Orleans could not be avoided, the new submarine was sunk, and it lay for many
years at the bottom of the harbour, eventually being recovered without it having suffered any damage.
Another vessel was built to the same plan’ it was 25 feet long, with a beam of 5 feet, and it was also 6
feet high. It was determined to tow the new craft to a position whence she could attack the blockaders,
who were lying off Charleston. During the towage, however, a gale was encountered, the submarine broke
adrift, and quickly foundered. Fortunately, her brave crew were able to make their escape. Undismayed
by their double loss, Hunley and McClintock built a third submarine of even larger proportions, no attempt
was made in these three vessels to give adequate propelling machinery’ in each case propulsion was
effected by cranks on the screw shaft which was turned by some members of the crew. In the original
plans of Hunley’s Submarines, the vessel was to dive under an enemy ship whilst towing a mine, this
was to be released at the crucial moment, and the ship blown up.
Obviously there was considerable danger to the attacker in having such an appendage, and, on reflection,
the designer of this early submarine decided that a spar torpedo, similar to that carried by the David, would
be more effective. Many of the previous submarines mentioned had been built of wood; these American
vessels were built of boiler iron, and circular manholes were placed on the deck through which the crew
descended; these could then be screwed into position, making a watertight joint.
The whole history of submarine experiment is one too often filled with disastrous failures; these frequently
brought fatal effects for either the designer or the crew. So it proved with Hunley’s new submarine, which
he had christened David, after the craft that attempted the sinking of the New Ironsides. In trying to engage
the enemy, the David lost no fewer than 35 good men. The first disaster with her occurred through the swell
made by a paddle steamer which happened to pass the submarine whilst she was exercising on the surface
with open hatches. The officer in charge happened to see what was about to take place, and he escaped,
but the whole of the crew, eight in number, went down with the submarine and were lost. The David was
salvaged, and after careful preparation she was dispatched for further testing. History repeated itself, for
whilst cruising with her hatches partially open, a sudden squall heeled the vessel over, slowly she filled,
and sank, her commander and two of his men only escaping. Still a third time was the David in trouble
during her preliminary trials. On this occasion Lieutenant Paine, who had already had two marvelous
escapes on her previous sinkings, got clear with three of his men, but the rest were drowned. Although
the young officer appeared to bear a charmed life, he felt that the slogan “third time lucky” had been amply
borne out, and he decided that the David was no longer the boat for him. He therefore, resigned his
command, and a fresh skipper was appointed.
In view of her three disastrous experiments, it is amazing that a fourth crew could be found, but they were,
and again she foundered; this time the whole of her occupants being drowned. No one knows exactly
why this disaster took place, since there was no one to make any report upon it. One would have thought
the Confederates, having sore need of brave men, would have scrapped the David,
and found some
Having lost so many men n training them to take the lives of others, the Navy Department decided that her
next venture should be a case of win or lose altogether.
It came to the knowledge of the Confederate people that the enemy had recently put in service a very fine
new corvette, the Housatonic. As luck would have it she was lying off the bar near Charleston Harbour;
she seemed to offer a splendid object. Unwilling to risk further loss of life with this extremely unfortunate
submarine the authorities cut down her crew to the minimum’; in all, including her commander, there were
but seven people aboard. It was as brave a thing as had ever been attempted in warfare; imagine the
feelings of those volunteers; even during her exercises the David had drowned five crews, now she was on
active service in which her capacity would be tested to the full. In addition it was winter, actually the 17th
It was known that the Federals were not wholly unaware of the projected attack, spies had been busy, and
the whole of the Federal warships had received a special warning to sink, without inquiry, any craft which
attempted to approach them. The Minister for the Navy had sent special instructions as to how an attack
from submersible craft could be made. One thing the Navy Department over looked in their warnings; they
had naturally considered that the ships which lay nearer the shore would be most likely to be attacked,
and it was these who received the special instructions. The Confederates, on the other hand, determined
that the outer vessels would be the better mark and it was amongst them that the Housatonic was lying.
For this ship the little David made; it was indeed a case of the Biblical David and Goliath, but unlike the
Bible story the Goliath becoming aware of its attacker, the small David was greatly perturbed. Strictly,
the submarine would have been navigated with the hatches closed, but so fearful were the men of what
might happen is she submerged, that they refused point blank to be fastened down in this fashion.
The submarine, however, approached the Housatonic with her deck awash. She had been seen as she
came to close quarters; the men on board the warship appeared to have been singularly alert, for in no time
she was beaten to quarters and slipped her cables, going astern as she did so. Within two minutes,
however, the David had let fly her spar torpedo, which was loaded with quite 100 lb, if powder. The captain
of the Housatonic endeavored to bring his guns to bear on the attacker, but it was soon evident that she
was at too close range for the guns to be depressed, and when they were fired, the shot went harmlessly
over the little David. Dixon, the commander of the David, had been able to choose what he considered the
most vital spot in the warship’s hull; he conjectured that the magazine would be just forward of the main-mast.
It would appear that he judged to a nicety, for when the torpedo struck the hull of the doomed warship she rose
on the crest of what seemed a very high wave, and then began to settle stern foremost in the water. It was a
most thrilling moment, for here, for the fist time in history probably, a submarine was securing her victim quite successfully, and a new chapter in naval warfare was being opened. There was now a scene of considerable panic aboard the Federal ship, for not only was the onslaught so unexpected, but the noise of the report, the trembling of the big ship, and its quick sinking, were all very unnerving. Even so, the sailors were prompt to man the boats,
although only a few minutes elapsed between the striking of the torpedo and the sinking of the Housatonic.
Practically the whole of her crew managed to leave the vessel in her boats, or else were picked up by boats
from other ships.
the Biblical encounter
returned victorious; here the submarine was lost with her antagonist and the
The new semi-submarines were quickly built, and it was the intention of the Navy Department that they
should be used for the express purpose of blowing up Confederate ironclads. There is no record, however,
of any real success being obtained by these strange craft. When at last this terrible struggle came to an
end, the consensus of information in naval circles appeared to be that, although some progress had been
made towards a submarine, the problem was still one which awaited a definite solution,. It was hopeless
to build vessels for attacking enemy warships unless there was a reasonable prospect of them escaping
after their work was done. Experiments had shown that the attacker was in an even more vulnerable
position that the attacked. As the training for such craft was of a highly specialized nature, needing the
best and clearest brains in any navy, it was obvious that to send such men to their death was robbing that
navy of its greatest asset. Although experiments still went forward, the whole problem had to be faced
afresh in view of the lessons learned in the gigantic struggle between the Federals and the Confederates.
Summed up, the problem had to be faced afresh in view of the lessons learned in the gigantic struggle
between the Federals and the Confederates. Summed up, the trouble was still that a submarine could
not be effective unless it had powerful propelling machinery. Where was this to be found? Steam was
hopeless, save when a boat was awash; what could be done when she was submerged? Electricity was
mentioned by may experts, and several inventors tried their hands at producing efficient motion, but, when
all had been said for electricity, the fact remained that it was a most dangerous agent to employ on a
submerging vessel. The batteries gave constant trouble, and the fumes given off from the acids employed
so dangerous to the men, that it was courting disaster to send them below with
such a type of
Gibbard. The romance of the submarine. Philadelphia,
Sent: Thursday, December 30, 2004 4:58 PM
Subject: Hunley Model
Last year I completed a scratch built Hunley, depicted as being shipped to Charleston, it is in 1/24 scale. Would you like photos? It was built with the help of Michael Crisafulli’s plans etc. Your newsletters are great, I will be sure to subscribe, to keep them coming. Thank you, Dan Rumney
would be great and thanks for the compliment. All the newsletters are time
consuming, but...they are rewarding if only to keep abreast of Hunley
Information. I am looking forward to another year of writing and producing
them, I also working on a compilation of all the past newsletters in book form.
Again thanks for the support and I am looking forward to the photo's.
George W. Penington
Here are the pic's. They where taken w/o the display case to
7) HUNLEY MODEL ON EBAY
This model was built by George W. Penington Editor and webmaster of the Hunley.com Newsletter and website using William J. Blackmore’s 1/72 scale resin kit, modified, completed and mounted on a piece of Charleston driftwood in a cyrillic plastic crystal clear display case with a section of his map "Charleston Harbor Civil War Battle Map" as a background showing all three of the actual sinking sites of this submarine. These models are numbered and this particular one is # 4/200. Each model and display is uniquely different and is worth collecting. Blackmore’s model has amazing accuracy but is modified using theories that were discussed in our CSS H L Hunley Club by some of the greatest experts available. The spar arrangement is crafted based on logic and engineering required to keep the 135 lb. Torpedo aligned properly. The map in the background shows the actual sinking site of the Hunley and the Housatonic. The following is a brief history of the spar and the results of the confederate efforts.
The case is 13" x 5.5" x 5" (made in the USA with pride) The base is mirrored and the back has the appropriate section of my Charleston Harbor Civil War Battle map.
Some history: Attaching a torpedo to a spar on the bow of the Hunley was an innovation brought about by Commander Dixon to solve the errors of towing a 90 pound free floating bomb behind his submarine. The idea was taken from the “David” built in Charleston who had successfully attacked the blockading Northern ship the “New Ironsides” outside Charleston Harbor and shaking her up from keel to lookout tower. In action the Hunley would propel itself manually using her “human horse power” to crank a propeller driven metal coffin toward an enemy vessel and then ram a harpoon like spike with 135 lbs. of dry gun powder into the side of any ship anchored within range. In theory the Hunley would then back away and allow the torpedo to come off the end of the spar. As she backed away to an estimated distance of 125 feet a line attached to a trigger on the torpedo on one end, and a spool on the other end would unwind. When the line was fully unwound the tension would trip the firing device and the bomb would explode.
On the evening of 17 February, 1864 the Hunley plowed out to sea in an iron tube in 58 degree water and attacked the U.S. Sloop of War U.S.S. Housatonic, one of the newest vessels to be stationed at the Charleston blockade. During the attack the cannons of the Housatonic could not be brought to bear down at the low angle in which the “fish boat “was first seen. Only small arms, muskets and shotguns from the deck watches were fired and bounced harmlessly off the bullet proof hull of the submarine. In a timed moment the 39.5 foot submarine tried to back away when an explosion and a great turbulence rose form the sea. The USS Housatonic sank within fifteen minutes and took five souls with her. The remaining crew, other than the one sailor who dived back below to get his wallet, survived by climbing into the rigging. Their only choice was to stay out of the water in the rigging and wait for rescue.
Confederate Shore Patrols reported seeing a blue signal light after the attack, which was the pre-arranged signal for mission accomplished. However, the HUNLEY and her brave crew never returned from their mission In 1970 Dr. E. Lee Spence located the wreck of the Hunley which remained in a state of remarkable preservation while he spent the next 25 years trying to convince authorities to help in resurrecting the wreck to no avail. On 9 August, 2000 the HUNLEY came to the surface and began the historic return home through the efforts of many Charlestonians and guest. Through their remarkable efforts many astounding secrets have been unveiled about the submarine, the most astounding of which may be that the Hunley was not just created from boiler parts that were lying about in a scrap pile, but actually designed and built from the ground up as an attack submarine, sleek in design and way advanced of anything invented to that day.
By George W. Penington – Editor
As of today there are at least one hundred more mysteries that need to be resolved. On February 17,
1864 exactly one year before the end of the American Civil War a top secret submarine was launched into Charleston Harbor and became the first submarine to destroy an enemy ship. Ever since that day historians, scientist and civil war buffs have battled to solve the mystery and are hoping to have the
answer this year.
Hunley since it was raised from the harbor silt in 2000. This remarkable piece of history was a virtual time capsule filled with artifacts and the remains of the eight brave crewman who navigated the nearly 40’
“fish boat” to its final battle with the USS Housatonic.
Why did the Hunley sink? I have written a number of newsletters outlining theories the majority of
which were presented, discussed and debated in the CSS H L Hunley Club. Theories range from the
was severely injured during the sudden impact of the torpedo spar against the
incapacitating half the crew or she was rammed or swamped by one of the northern blockading ships rushing to rescue the crew of the Housatonic. Some contribute it to Commander Dixon and possible
human errors on his part.
Although club members have been hashing the various theories around for several years, they have
been waiting patiently as pieces of evidence are released by the Friends of the Hunley, Inc. One
member was quoted as saying that the FOTH has been overly stingy with information and facts until now. A recent ruling by the State Attorney General says that the group that is responsible for managing the restoration of the Hunley is definitely subject to the “Freedom of Information Act”
It is interesting to note that Commander George Dixon, played by Armand Assante, in the movie “The Hunley” was explaining the operation of the sub to the final crew and stated that these were the snorkels designed to bring in fresh air, but the damn things never have worked.
Maria Jacobsen, who found Dixon’s “gold piece” has always been forth coming as much as she is
too, and it is she who will help to decide the final answer to the mystery of
the sinking if there is to be one. So far she has concluded based on her
research and the input of fellow scientist and forensics that "Whatever happened
appears to have happened quite quickly," she said. "They were collapsed more or
less where they sat. You didn't see the guys trying to move toward the conning
towers to exit. So either something happened very fast or they were not able to
move." Her theory is that either the crew became unconscious from lack of
oxygen, anoxia set in or the submarine flooded so rapidly that no one could
reports that over 3,000 items were removed from the interior and processed,
photographed and mapped using 3-D laser technologies. She also stated that this
may be the first time this method has been used with this type of archaeological
project to create an image of the interior and exterior of the sub.
members are anxiously waiting for the examination of the hull. Ms. Jacobsen
reports that "Every surface is covered with a corrosion product, the concretion.
After that is removed and while the salt in the metal is removed to prevent
disintegration we'll have to study the hull damage that is visible and determine
how did it occur." In the mean time research is being conducted to the sediment
found inside and lifted out in large cubes to determine how the submarine filled
with silt and what articles may be hidden inside. It has been reported that over
900 x-rays have been taken and that the silt reduced the oxygen to help slow
down 140 years of decomposition to the extent that brain tissue was found in the
skulls of the crewmen and their bones even remained in their shoes.
The X-rays revealed that because of the lack of oxygen to foster decomposition, the crewmen's brain tissue remained inside their skulls and their bones inside their shoes.
Membership in the CSS H L Hunley Club is free to all. The online address is
http://groups.yahoo.com/groups/csshlhunley This group was formed for conversation and the exchange of information on the past and future history of the H.L.Hunley ,and the people who made it possible. We have over 370 pictures ,many links and always adding. Twenty one crew members died in the H.L.Hunley. This group is dedicated to those men.
----- Original Message -----
----- Original Message -----
is the best record of the Hunley Burial around.
http://www.getadub.com/hunley.html but ps.
Thank you so much, I shall
I am an avid reader of all kinds of literature pertaining to the Civil War. The unforgettable story of the Hunley is one of the great tales of this unbelievably complex conflict which has captured a lot of my attention lately. I also saw the raising of the Hunley on television which I found to be quite moving, since the mortal remains of these brave warriors could finally be lifted from the ocean floor and laid to rest in their beloved soil which they defended until their last breath.
realname: J. R. Eder
have followed the raising and subsequent study of the Hunley with great
interest. I have a very strong interest in the Civil War. I think the Hunley is
one of the great historical treasures of our time. I have yet to visit the
Hunley but plan on doing so soon. My Car license plate is H. L. 1151
Gentlemen: After viewing your page describing the signal lanterns and hearing you bemoan the fact that there are few mentions of such lamps and their usage I thought it only proper to alert you to the Signal Corps Association's web site and forum at: http://www.civilwarsignals.org/ and invite you to post up with us til your heart is content. You will find information and ask as many questions at will. We also have a discussion chat room slated for every Wednesday night at 7 pm EST. Both the forum and chat room is open to all and you don't have to register either. Our topics include both naval and military communication principles and methods and we have an archive full of documentation. Hope to see you there! Walt
----- Original Message -----
From: "pcjjordan" <email@example.com>
Sent: Saturday, January 08, 2005 11:38 PM
Subject: Angus Smith...diver
Excellent site. Evidence from the Hunley wreck demonstrates that many of the
crew were recent European immigrants. This confounds an existing historical
assumption that new immigrants were almost only able to give their loyalty to
the Federacy and that only persons with personal history of slavery and
affection for it could fight for it and that this is central to the
confederacy's failure to attract European arms into its ranks. To be told that
the crew was largely European and substantially Irish comes as a serious shock.
Why would a European have affection for slavery? Were the immigrants offered
land to serve for the confederacy or perhaps just for this special task? One
last point. I'm not trying to dwell on trivia but the Irish sailors were buried
in the Episcopalian church. Do we know if they were Episcopalians?
realname: Cdr Tim Roberts RN(Rtd)
A really fascinating website dedicated to the first submarine to sink enemy shipping. Thanks for letting me share such an interesting story.
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